Introduction to Microelectronics


Oct 17, 20233280

Introduction to Microelectronics

Microelectronics is a new field that uses integrated circuit technology as the core to design, manufacture. It uses micro-sized electronic components and circuits to realize the functions of electronic systems. At the same time, it refers to the application of large-scale or ultra-large-scale integrated circuits. We are talking about the comprehensive technology that utilizes modern computer technology and communication technology to produce modern high-speed computers and communication products as well as the application of these products in various fields.




This emerging thing took its rise and was developed in the process of ultra-miniaturization and miniaturization of electronic circuits and systems. In the middle and late stages of the Second World War, many fundamental ideas for electronic equipment were proposed due to military needs.


The invention of the transistor in 1947, and later combined with printed circuit assembly, made electronic circuits a big step forward in miniaturization. By around 1958, scientists have invent hybrid components based on this component successfully. Integrated circuit technology uses a series of specific processing techniques to "integrate" active devices such as transistors, diodes and passive devices such as resistors and Yageo capacitors on a single semiconductor wafer according to specified circuit interconnections.




A distinctive feature of the current development of microelectronics technology is the emergence of the concept of System On Chip (SOC). In the early days of the development of integrated circuits (ICs), circuits were designed from the physical layout of the device. Later, IC unit libraries appeared, using IC design to move from the device level to the logic level. This design idea enabled a large number of circuit and logic designers to get involved in IC design, which greatly promoted the development of the IC industry.


As the level of IC design and process technology continue to improve, integrated circuits are becoming larger and more complex, and the entire system can be integrated into one chip. It is under the dual effects of demand traction and technology promotion that the concept of system-on-chip, which integrates the entire system on an IC chip, emerged. Its further development can integrate various physical, chemical and biological sensors (performing information acquisition functions) and actuators with information processing systems to complete the system from information acquisition, processing, storage, transmission to execution. This is a system integrated chip in a broader sense.


Many studies have shown that compared with systems composed of ICs, because SOC design can comprehensively and comprehensively consider various situations of the entire system. It achieves higher performance system indicators under the same process technology conditions. The transformation of microelectronics from IC to SOC is not only a conceptual breakthrough, but also an inevitable result of the development of information technology. At present, SOC technology has emerged, and the 21st century will be a period of truly rapid development of SOC technology.


Another notable feature of microelectronics is strong vitality, which stems from the ability to produce microelectronic structural modules with high reliability and high precision at low cost and in large quantities. Once this technology is combined with other disciplines, a series of new disciplines and major economic growth points will be born. Typical examples of successful combination with microelectronics are microelectromechanical systems or microelectromechanical systems and biochips. The former is born from the combination of microelectronics technology with mechanics, optics and other fields, while the latter is the product of a combination with bioengineering technology.




Microelectronics is the core and foundation of military science. The rapid development and the huge changes in weapons and equipment are, in a sense, the result of the rapid development and widespread application of microelectronics. The technology has the highest penetration and plays a big role in promoting the development of the national economy and modern science. The development level and scale have become important for country's military, economic strength and technological progress. Because of this, countries around the world have ranked microelectronics at the top of the list of high technologies, making it the most important field to compete for technological advantages.


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